The veto comes after the US Ambassador to North Atlantic Treaty Organisation described Syrian President Bashar al Assad's actions as genocide, and said Russian Federation was propping him up.
Resolutions drafted by each country have been rejected at the UN Security Council.
Earlier the president's new national security adviser, John Bolton, urged President Donald Trump to skip his trip to South America this week because of the ongoing crisis in Syria.
Russian Federation and the United States failed on Tuesday to win support at the UN Security Council for their rival proposals to investigate chemical weapons use in Syria as the threat of military action loomed large.
Russian Federation vetoed a US-drafted resolution to create a new inquiry to ascertain blame for such attacks.
Moscow opposes any Western strike on its close ally Assad and has vetoed Security Council action on Syria 12 times since the conflict started.
Nikki Haley, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, combs her hair before the start of a Security Council meeting, Tuesday, April 10, 2018, at U.N. headquarters.
"History will record that, on this day, Russian Federation chose protecting a monster over the lives of the Syrian people".
Syria and its ally Russian Federation have rejected allegations by activists and rescuers that a chemical attack on the rebel-held town of Douma over the weekend killed more than 40 people.
Doctors and witnesses have said victims showed symptoms of poisoning, possibly by a nerve agent, and reported the smell of chlorine gas.
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A senior Russian lawmaker says Russia will engage its warships in the Mediterranean Sea to protect Russian assets in Syria from a possible US strike.
Syria's United Nations envoy Bashar Ja'afari, speaking at the close of the meeting, emphasized that his Government had officially invited the OPCW to send its fact-finding mission to investigate.
"You do not want to hear the fact that no traces of a chemical attack were found in Douma", Nebenzia said.
France and Britain discussed with the Trump administration how to respond to the Douma attack.
The United Nations on Wednesday stressed the need for the safe evacuation of civilians from besieged areas in Syria's Eastern Ghouta and the importance of protecting them.
Both Trump and his defense secretary Jim Mattis abruptly canceled upcoming travel plans, as the USS Donald Cook - a guided-missile destroyer - moved to within striking range of Syria.
That panel had found that the Syrian air force had dropped sarin on the village of Khan Sheikhun in April of previous year.
The threats of USA military movement in opposition to Syria "must make us severely apprehensive, all of us", Nebenzia talked about.
The watchdog said it has requested the Syrian government to make the necessary arrangements for such a deployment.
The visit that RIA Novosti and Tass reported on Wednesday comes amid growing expectation of US retaliation against Syria for a suspected chemical weapons attack on a rebel-held town.
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"The team is preparing to deploy to Syria shortly".
The mission will aim to determine whether banned munitions were used but will not assign blame.
"I merely hope that we do not have in mind this the tip within the case of constructing sure that the data are established ant that there is a true accountability and no additional impunity for the horrendous use of chemical weapons in Syria and elsewhere", Skoog talked about.
"Syria is keen on cooperating with the OPCW to uncover the truth behind the allegations that some Western sides have been advertising to justify their aggressive intentions", Syria's state news agency SANA said.
European governments said they will wait for the results of the OPCW investigation and for more solid forensic evidence before taking the next step on the matter.
"Let that also be a response to planned military interventions".
In Syria, thousands of militants and their families arrived in rebel-held parts of the country's northwest after surrendering Douma to government forces.
The showdown between the United States and Russian Federation at the United Nations came as the threat of Western military action in Syria loomed large.
Tass in a news story out of the northern Syria city of Homs quoted lawmaker Dmitry Sablin refuting reports that Assad may have fled Syria.
A Russian warplane flew over a French warship at low altitude in the eastern Mediterranean this weekend, a deliberate breach of worldwide regulations, a French naval source said on Tuesday. It is now operating off Lebanon alongside U.S. ships as part of France's military contingent fighting Islamic State militants in Syria and Iraq.
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